Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that is essential for digesting fats and for eliminating worn-out red blood cells and certain toxins from your body. Bile is produced in your liver and stored in your gallbladder.
Eating a meal that contains even a small amount of fat signals your gallbladder to release bile, which flows through two small tubes (cystic duct and common bile duct) into the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum).
Bile reflux into the stomach
Bile and food mix in the duodenum and enter your small intestine through the pyloric valve, a heavy ring of muscle located at the outlet of your stomach. The pyloric valve usually opens only slightly — enough to release about an eighth of an ounce (about 3.5 milliliters) of liquefied food at a time, but not enough to allow digestive juices to reflux into the stomach. In many cases of bile reflux, the valve doesn''t open enough to allow the stomach to empty as quickly as it should. Stagnant food in the stomach can lead to increased gastric pressure and allow bile and stomach acid to back up into the esophagus. Gallbladder surgery (cholecystectomy). People who have had their gallbladders removed have significantly more bile reflux than do people who haven''t a concern. But frequent or continual heartburn is the most common symptom of GERD, a potentially serious problem that causes irritation and inflammation of esophageal tissue (esophagitis). GERD is most often due to excess acid. Although bile has been implicated, its importance in reflux is controversial. Barrett''s esophagus. Esophageal cancer. This form of cancer may not be diagnosed until it''s initial evaluation, you may be referred to a specialist in digestive disorders (gastroenterologist).
Here''re experiencing and the 1 last update 28 May 2020 for how long.Here''re experiencing and for how long. Make a list of your key medical information, including any other conditions for which you''re taking. Find a family member or friend who can come with you to the appointment, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help remember what the doctor says. Write down questions to ask your doctor. Creating your list of questions in advance can help you make the most of your time with your doctor.
Don''re also likely to have tests to check for damage to your esophagus and stomach, as well as for precancerous changes.
Tests may include:
- Endoscopy. A thin, flexible tube with a camera (endoscope) is passed down your throat. The endoscope can show peptic ulcers or inflammation in your stomach and esophagus. Your doctor also may take tissue samples to test for Barrett''s helpful for people who regurgitate substances that aren''t be detected by an acid probe. As in a standard probe test, esophageal impedance uses a probe that''t have a clear role in treating bile reflux.
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Doctors may recommend surgery if medications fail to reduce severe symptoms or there are precancerous changes in your esophagus. Some types of surgery can be more successful than others, so be sure to discuss the pros and cons carefully with your doctor.
The options include:
- Diversion surgery (Roux-en-Y). This procedure, which is also a type of weight-loss surgery, may be recommended for people who have had previous gastric surgery with pylorus removal. In Roux-en-Y, surgeons make a new connection for bile drainage farther down in the small intestine, diverting bile away from the stomach.
- Anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication). The part of the stomach closest to the esophagus (fundus) is wrapped and then sewn around the lower esophageal sphincter. This procedure strengthens the valve and can reduce acid reflux. There is little evidence about the surgery''re under stress, digestion slows, possibly worsening reflux symptoms. Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation or yoga, may help.